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The Advantages of Open Pit Mining

Open pit minequarry image by Goran Bogicevic from Fotolia.comOpen pit mining does offer some advantages over traditional deep shaft mining. Pit mining is more cost effective than shaft mining because more ore can be extracted and more quickly. The working conditions are safer for the...

DIY Plywood Shipping Crate

Some things simply cannot be shipped in a cardboard box. They are too heavy, fragile or oddly shaped, and cardboard may not offer the support or protection needed. A plywood crate is stronger, and is screwed or nailed shut, lending even more stability to the container. Building a crate is a straight

What Is Green Onyx?

Green onyx is a mineral of the Earth that is a compacted and colored form of quartz. Unlike ordinary quarts, the crystalline structure is fine and compacted, making it ideal for gemstones, and cameos.

How to Embroider a Star

There are many types of embroidery, some more time consuming than others and it all depends on the type of stitching used to create the embroidered piece. In some cases people choose to embroider just the outline of an object, in other cases the entire drawing is filled with stitching giving the pie

Dalton's Characteristics of Atoms

As a result of his experiments combining oxygen and carbon, John Dalton observed the ratio of carbon to oxygen always remained constant in each compound. To explain why atoms combined in fixed ratios, Dalton proposed his Atomic Theory, which describes the characteristics of atoms.

Power Wheels Assembly Tips

The Power Wheels line of toys are small cars with limited power, but which drive a lot like their larger counterparts. Many of these cars are decorated to look like larger cars, but when they first arrive they're not constructed. You have to assemble the Power Wheel car first to get your kids drivin

How to Make a Gladiator Belt

Whether you're trying to recreate the look of Russell Crowe's character Maximus or just want the rugged look of the fighting slave class in Roman times, you'll need a gladiator costume for your next Halloween or dress-up occasion. The whole costume is relatively simple to assemble, and you'll just n

How to Design a PCR Primer

According to the University of Wisconsin's BioWeb website, a PCR primer is a short, synthetic oligonucleotide (usually between 18 to 25 bases long) used to amplify specific regions of DNA in a molecular biology technique known as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Both a forward and reverse primer are

Principles of Modern Architecture

Ancient Roman architecture has influenced countless modern designs.Buena Vista Images/Photodisc/Getty ImagesModern architecture still draws from a variety of historical precedents in building design, with features such as the arch and column remaining popular due to their sound basis in...

Gem Cutting Equipment or Types of Gem Cuts

Craftsmen that shape and cut gemstones employ four basic styles of working: carving, faceting, tumbling and cabbing. Each method is used to produce a different finished result. While carrying out their work, craftsmen have a variety of tools and equipment at their disposal that help in producing the

How to Restore a Lava Lamp

Lava lamps were invented in the 1960's and many used lamps are still in circulation. Some in the salvage market need restoration, since the wax "lava" inside is fragile. Just shaking a lamp can permanently cloud it. Even leaving it in the sun can eventually turn the colored water clear. Fortunately,

What Are Algae Blooms?

Algae blooms are the rapid growth and build up of phytoplankton, a small and simple, free-floating water plant, in either freshwater or saltwater. Algae blooms are sometimes called red tides because of the tint the bloom gives the water. However, the blooms are neither tidal nor exclusively red.

How to Convert a Mach Number to Miles Per Hour

The term "Mach" is often heard in reference to high-speed vehicles such as jets. The Mach number is a ratio used to describe the vehicle or aircraft's speed compared to the speed of sound. Mach is named for Austrian physicist Ernst Mach. The Mach number ratio is described as M=v/a where "v" equals t

How to Grow a Frog Tadpole

Observing a tadpole grow to an adult frog is a rewarding and educational experience for people of all ages. Children in particular enjoy watching a frog's metamorphosis, and growing tadpoles can be a great way to teach about the natural world and how amphibians fit into it. Many amphibian lovers, pe

How to Find Problems in a 24-Volt Electrical System

Twenty-four-volt electrical systems are powered by a transformer or battery. If the electrical equipment linked to your 24-volt electrical system isn't working, then you need to find the problem. The best way is to undertake a systematic test of the wring starting at the power source and ending at t

How to Dry Wild Flowers

Wild flowers are a delight to the senses. They lend color, interest and fragrance to any landscape in which they appear. When cut and placed indoors, wild flowers make pleasing decorative elements. Like all flowers, however, wild flowers have a relatively short life span, especially after they are c

How to Use an Ink Film Thickness Gauge

A film can be applied to many surfaces giving a finished look. However, the thickness of the film is important. Too thick, and it can detract and obscure the appearance of the item coated. Too thin, and the effectiveness of its protection is lessened, not to mention any detail it's meant to conceal.

How Does Calcium Hypochlorite React With Water?

Calcium hypochlorite is one of the primary disinfectants added to swimming pools and municipal water supplies. It is a strong oxidizer and can be dangerous if not stored and handled properly.